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درست کردن قیود زمان

نوشته شده توسط:master
پنجشنبه 3 شهریور 1390-03:55 ق.ظ

درست کردن قیود زمان.

برای مشاهده بر روی ادامه مطلب کلیک کنید.

گرامر انگلیسی {اموزش زمان ها}

برای مشاهده بر روی ادامه مطلب کلیک کنید

اموزش زمان ها:

 

-حال ساده:present simple tense

الگوی ساخت: مصدر بدون to+فاعل

- موارد کاربرد زمان حال ساده

(usage):

1- بین کار های عادی و تکراری

مثال:                                                                          . I usually get up at 9.00 every day -

 

نکته: مهمترین قیود تکرار(Adverb of frequency):

always, sometimes, often, generally, usually, never, ever, seldom, frequently, mostly, occasionally, regularly, rarely, hardly, scarcely 

 

تبصره :

قیود تکرار بعد از افعال مخصوص و قبل از افعال معمولی بکار می روند:


. He has never been to Germany -


تبصره :

قیود دیگری که معمولا همراه مورد اول زمان حال ساده است،عبارتند از:

every day,once a week,yearly,daily,weekly,hourly

 

2- بیان کارهای تغییر ناپذیر و حقیقی :

. She has blue eyes  -

. The earth moves round the sun -

 

3- بیان کارهای عادی ولی تغییر پذیر:

. You have a lot of friends-

 

4- بیان کار مشخص و تنظیم شده ای که در زمان آینده ی نزدیک یا دور به طور حتم و یقین صورت می گیرد.

. My friend leaves London for New York tomorrow -

 

5- بیان اتفاقات مهم تاریخی که در زمان گذشته اتفاق افتاده و گوینده بخواهد آن را برای شنوندگان،با اهمیت خاصی بیان کند و اصطلاحا آن را"historic present" گویند.

. Hamlet whose father is dead,is the mean character in the play  -

.... The ghost of Hamlet's father appears and tells Hamlet -

 

6- افعال مربوط به هوش و هواس، ادراک، هیجان و تملک که به زمان حال مربوط باشند، با فعل مضارع(حال)بیان می شوند:

. I realize what you mean -

 

7- بیان استعداد و توانایی:

. She solves difficult problems-

 

8- بعد از حروف ربطِ:

if,unless,whenever,when,before,after,since,as soon as, until,till,as

 

اگر فعلی به ‌آینده دلالت کند، به جای آینده از حال ساده استفاده می شود.

 

اگر به همین زودی بارون بیاد، خوشحال میشم.            .I'll be glad if it rains soon  

?What are you going to do when you leave school -

بعد از در آمدن از مدرسه، می خوای کجا بری؟

 


:More examples

.I go runnig three times a week-

.The nurses look after patients in hospitals-

.In britain most of the shops close at 5.30 p.m-

 

نکته :

یکی دیگر از موارد استفاده ی زمان حال ساده،هنگام تعریف داستان و نیز در تفسیر گزارشهای ورزشی می باشد.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 


 

2-حال استمراری:present progressive tense

الگوی ساخت: ingفعل +am/is/are +فاعل

طریقه ی شناسایی:

- قید های زمان:       ...,at present, at the moment,now,for the time being

- حال استمراری+جمله ی امری

:Examples

. Please don't make so much noise.i'm studing-

."Where is Ali?" "He's having a bath."-

.Let's go out now. It isn't raining any more-

.at a party) Hello,ann. Are you enjoying the party)-

 

نکته1: بیشترین مورد کاربرد این زمان در مورد موقعیت هایی است که هنگام صحبتِ گوینده در حال انجام و اتفاق افتادن می باشند:

بجنب!همه ما منتظر تو هستیم .Hurry up!we're all waiting for you-

چرا داری گریه می کنی؟                       ?why are you crying-

نکته2:زمان حال استمراری به همراه کلماتی نظیرforever,continually,constantly,always برای بیان امور غیر مترقبه و یا اینکه برای بیان گله و شکایت بکار می رود:

.She is always borrowing money and forgetting to pay you back-

 

اون همیشه پول قرض می گیره، و یادش میره که بهت برگردونه.(احساس عدم رضایت و لحن گله آمیز گوینده).

- تبصره:

بعضی افعال فقط به صورت زمان ساده بکار می روند.برای مثال  نمی توانید    بگویید"I  am knowing".فقط می توانید بگویید"I know".در زیر فهرست افعالی که معمولا به صورت استمراری بکار برده نمی شوند ارائه شده است.(اما استثنائاتی نیز وجود دارد):

want        like      belong       know       suppose        remember

need        love     see         realize        mean             forget

prefer     hate    hear          believe      understand     seem

 

(وقتی به معنای "مالک بودن،دارا بودن" باشد.)have

(وقتی به معنای"عقیده داشتن "باشد.)think

. Do you like london-

. He doesn't understand-

- These shoes belong to me-

(?What do you think Tom will do?(=What do you believe he will do-

 (?What are you thinking about?(= What is going on your mind  اما می گوئیم

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

3-زمان حال کامل:present perfect tense

الگوی ساخت: اسم مفعول(قسمت سوم)+have/has+ فاعل

توضیح:

معادل این زمان در فارسی ماضی نقلی است؛همانطور که می دانید جزء زمانهای گذشته تقسیم بندی می شود اما در انگلیسی جزء زمان حال به حساب می آید.موارد کاربرد زمان حال کامل در اکثر موارد با موارد کاربرد گذشته ی ساده اشتباه می شود،در این مبحث سعی بر این است که تا حد امکان این زمان و موارد کاربرد آن مورد توضیح قرار گیرد.زمان حال کامل به گونه ای هم با گذشته و هم با حال در ارتباط است و علت تقسیم بندی های مختلف در دستور زبان های مختلف در مورد آن نیز همین مسئله می باشد.

موارد کاربرد زمان حال کامل(usage):

1- کارها و موقعیت هایی که در گذشته شروع شده اند خودشان (یا اثرشان) تا به زمان حال ادامه پیدا کرده است:

                              .I've lived in Greece since 1979-

من از سال 1979توی یونان زندگی می کنم.

(یعنی در حال حاضر هم در یونان ساکن هستم.)

      .We've known each other for a long time -

مدت زیادی است که همدیگر را می شناسیم. 

(در حال حاضر هم همدیگر را می شناسیم.)

تبصره:

زمان کار در جملات حال کامل به دو صورت بیان می شود:

(Starting point) نقطه ی شروع کار در گذشته+A). since

(During of action) مدت زمان انجام کار+B). for

از سال 1948تا بحال اینجا کار می کنه. (نقطه ی شروع کار).She has worked here since 1948 -


40ساله که اینجا کار می کنه. (مدت زمان انجام کار).  She has worked here for 40 years-

2- کارها و رویدادهای که در گذشته انجام شده و به پایان رسیده اند. در واقع در این کاربرد،اهمیت رویدادِ اتفاق افتاده در گذشته( که گاهی اثر آن تا به حال نیز ادامه پیدا می کند)باعث استفاده از حال کامل می شود:

.I've been all over Iran-

.The president has been assassinated-

رئیس جمهور ترور شده است.(حال کامل به شکل مجهول)

 

    .I can't go on because I've broken my leg -

چون پام شکسته،نمیتونم برم تعطیلات.

 

تبصره:

اگر دقیقا زمان انجام کار در گدشته مشخص باشد دیگر نمی توان از حال کامل استفاده کرد در این حالت باید از گذشته ی ساده استفاده نمود:

.I've spoken to the boss about my holiday-

با رئیس راجع به تعطیلاتم صحبت کرده ام.(حال کامل)

.I spoke to the boss today about my holiday  -

من امروز راجع به تعطیلاتم با رئیس صحبت کردم. (گذشته ساده)

تبصره:

بعضی از عبارات نشان دهنده ی زمان در جملات حال کامل به صورت رایج مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند مهمترین این عبارات عبارتند از:

never:هرگز                   ever:تابحال            yet:نابحال,تاکنون     

already: قبلا,تابحال            before:قبلا             just:همین الان


already,,just,ever,never معمولا بین فعل معین have(یاhas)و قسمت سوم فعل قرار می گیرند.yet وbeforeغالبا در انتهای جمله می آیند.

 

.Where is Razi? she has just gone out-

?Have you ever seen an iceberg-

.She has never been kissed-

.Has Mary telephoned yet-

?I've already broken three cups.shall I go washing up-

.I'm sure we've met before-

 

3-حال کامل استمراری:present perfect progressive tense

الگوی ساخت: ing فعل+been+have/has+ فاعل

توضیح:

 این زمان در مورد موقعیت ها و امور موقتی تر کاربرد داشته و بر استمرار آن در گذشته تاکید دارد.

ماه گذشته رو توی آپارتمان سالی سپری کردم .I've been living in sally's flat for the last month

That man's ('s = has) been standing on the corner all day

اون مرد تمام طول روز رو اون گوشه ایستاده بود.

نکته: مقایسه ی حال کامل استمراری و حال کامل:


وقتی که حال کامل بکار می بریم ، بیشتر منظورمان این است که کاری در گذشته به انجام رسیده و پایان یافته و احتمالا اثر آن بعد از آن ادامه یافته اما وقتی که حال کامل استمراری را بکار می بریم، بدین معناست که آن کار ممکن است تا به حال ادامه یافته باشد و در واقع بر استمرار آن(تا به زمان حال)تاکید داریم.

. I've been reading your book

من دارم کتابتو می خونم.(خواندن کتاب هنوز تمام نشده)- حال کامل استمراری

من کتابتو خوندم.(خواندن کتاب تمام شده)- حال کامل.I've read your book




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